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ACH Network

Тема в разделе "Банки и денежные переводы", создана пользователем cyber, 5 дек 2009.

  1. cyber

    cyber Well-Known Member

    Регистрация:
    01.11.09
    Сообщения:
    342
    Надеюсь, что эта статья будет интересна как знающим людям, так
    и тем, кто только что зарегал себе email. Те, кто все это уже прошел, just skip it,
    кто нет - милости просим прочесть и высказаться

    Хотелось бы очень коротко поговорить о том, что у всех сегодня на слуху, за прием и обналичивание
    чего взымаются барыши нальщиками, что будет для вас ценно здесь до тех пор, пока вы не решите сменить родину, а именно -- ACH...


    ACH Network

    ACH network - система основанная на принципе работы batch-процессинга. Транзакции, которые
    финансовая структура (банк например) получает от своих пользователей, накапливаются в так
    называемые batches (куча, стопка, пачка) в определенном формате. Они не обрабатываются каждая
    по-отдельности как это происходит в real-time credit card processingе, а просто складываются
    в кучу на определенное время. Затем батчи перемещаются в соответствии с определенными
    правилами, между финансовыми структурами.

    Участники ACH транзакции
    Кто и что же принимает участие в совершении платежа ACH. В любом ACH
    платеже принимает участие пять сущностей. вот они:
    originator - инициатор платежа, отправитель
    (компания, физическое лицо, не важно)
    ODFI (Originating Depository Financial Institution) - органи-
    зация, выполняющая роль сборщика информации от
    лица отправителя - банк.
    ACH operator
    RDFI (Receiving Depository FInancial Institution) - органи-
    зация, выполняющая роль сборщика информцаии от лица
    получателя - банк
    Receiver - получатель платежа (компания, физическое
    лицо, не важно)
    Подробнее о каждом
    Ниже самые общие определения об участниках ACH платежа. Естественно, что это далеко не полное
    описание каждого из них, но, думаю в общем представление о них будет.
    Originator/отправитель - это физическое или юридическое лицо инициирующее ACH транзакцию каким
    либо способом удобным для него. Замечу, что originatorом зовется то лицо, которое инициирует
    транзакцию, не зависимо от того, credit или debit транзакцию он инициирует.

    ODFI - финансовая организация, например банк, в которой у originatorа заведен счет,
    отвечающая за все операции, связанные с этим счетом. Эта организация собирает всю информацию,
    инициируемую отправителем в batch файл определенного формата и передает для дальнейшей
    обработки ACH operatorу. Если routing номер RDFI совпадает с routing номером ODFI,
    то большинство ODFI такую запись в batch файл не включают и через ACH network не пропускают -
    обходятся записью лишь в своих базах данных.

    ACH operator - clearing организация, подконтрольная Federal Reserve Bank
    либо еще трем так называемым "private sector operators" -- the American Clearing House Association,
    the Electronic Payments Network, и VisaNet ACH Services --, действующих в соответствии с
    соглашением с Federal Reserve'ом. Если сказать просто -- ACH Operatorы занимаются
    подсчетом долгов DFI's друг другу, передачей в DFI's ACH бачей и записью изменений о
    состоянии счетов DFI's в самом Federal Reserve.

    RDFI - финансовая организация, например банк, в которой у receivera
    заведен счет, отвечающая за все операции, связанные с этим счетом. Эта организация разбирает
    ACH batch'и, получаемые от ACH operatora и соответствующим образом распределяет записи из
    этих batch'ей в своей базе данных.

    Receiver/Получатель - это физическое или юридическое лицо владеющее счетом в RDFI.
    В зависимости от типа ACH транзакции инциированной отправителем - получатель может увидеть
    либо credit транзакцию (+), либо наоборот debit(-).






    В дополнение. Кому надо, тот переведет.

    Let's start with defining ACH and a brief summary of the ACH's
    history.

    WhatIs defines the Automated Clearing House thusly:

    "Automated Clearing House (ACH) is a secure payment transfer system
    that connects all U.S. financial institutions. The ACH network acts as
    the central clearing facility for all Electronic Fund Transfer (EFT)
    transactions that occur nationwide, representing a crucial link in the
    national banking system. It is here that payments linger in something
    akin to a holding pattern while awaiting clearance for their final
    banking destination."

    Automated Clearing House
    http://whatis.techtarget.com/definit...214632,00.html

    Here's a short and sweet summary from HowStuffWorks.com:

    ""ACH" is short for "automated clearing house." This bank terminology
    means that a person or business is authorizing another person or
    business to draft on an account. It is common for fitness centers and
    other businesses to ACH a monthly membership fee from member accounts,
    and many small businesses use ACH for direct deposit of paychecks."

    How ATMs Work
    http://money.howstuffworks.com/atm4.htm

    There's actually a teensy bit more to it than that, but it's a very
    good, bare bones explanation.

    The Automated Clearing House (commonly, but incorrectly referred to as
    "Automatic Check Handling") was first established in California in
    1972, by a joint effort between banks and the regional Federal Reserve
    to facilitate paperless check transactions. As news of the success of
    this first association spread, more ACH associations were established,
    with agreements made between the associations and their corresponding
    regional Federal Reserve Banks to operate regional ACH networks.

    The National Automated Clearing House Association was established in
    1974 to coordinate efforts to develop a nationwide ACH network,
    ultimately succeeding in 1978, when all ACH networks nationwide were
    electronically linked.

    In 1980, the ACH Network was changed slightly by the passage of the
    Monetary Control Act, which allowed for private sector ACH Operators
    to compete with the Federal Reserve Bank. There are now three
    recognized private sector ACH Operators: American Clearing House
    Association, the New York Automated Clearing House, and VisaNet ACH
    Services. It's expected that more private sector clearing houses will
    emerge in the near future. Currently, the FED ACH Operator (Federal
    Reserve) handles more than 85% of ACH transactions.

    The ACH Network is what is responsible for allowing such services as
    online bill pay, direct deposit, and direct debiting, and has proven
    to be a viable, faster and more cost effective alternative to paper
    check processing. It consists of more than 12,000 financial
    institutions, 650 industry councils, and a network of regional ACH
    associations, and is governed by NACHA - The Electronic Payments
    Association in Herndon, Virginia.

    ACH History
    http://web.archive.org/web/200201072...rg/achhist.htm

    Perhaps the easiest way to explain how the ACH system works is to
    start with a couple diagrams:

    How does the ACH network work?
    http://www.gsb.com/images/business/ach.gif

    ACH Network
    http://www.openecho.com/ach.ht1.gif

    Those probably aren't terribly helpful in and of themselves, but I
    asked the nice ladies at National City Bank (Lewis Ave. Branch,
    Toledo) to explain an ACH transaction in layman's terms. They were
    happy to oblige!

    Let's say for a moment that you have your car payment deducted from
    your checking account each month, because you hate writing checks and
    want to make sure every payment is on time. You authorize your lender
    to deduct the amount on a specific day of the month...say, the tenth
    of each month. Let's call that amount $500 (wow, nice Jeep!).

    On the tenth of the month, your lender (the Receiver) tells his biller
    (the Originator) to send a request to your bank to transfer $500 from
    your bank account to the lender's account, per your written payment
    agreement.

    The Originator sends this information to your bank (Originating
    Depository Financial Institution), which deducts the amount from your
    account and sends the information on to the ACH Operator (typically a
    Federal Reserve Bank, but not always). The amount is still in your
    account, but no longer available to you, and is typically flagged as a
    "pending ACH debit". Essentially, it's a hold on those funds.

    The ACH Operator notes that the ODFI is sending $500, the lender is
    receiving $500, and makes the proper transaction notations (much like
    ledger entries). The ACH then sends the information to the lender's
    bank (Receiving Depository Financial Institution).

    At this point, no money has actually changed accounts. It's all still
    hypothetical. Remember those ledger entries? It's all digital right
    now, until accounts are settled up and the payment is "cleared".

    The lender's bank transfers the amount to the lender's account, but
    doesn't make it available yet. It will be listed as a "pending ACH
    transfer". Once the RDFI receives the information, the accounts are
    reconciled, verified to have sufficient funds to complete the
    transaction ("cleared"), and the money is officially deducted from
    your account and deposited in your lender's account ("settled"). (In
    other words, the "pending" flags are removed, thus moving the
    transaction from the hypothetical to the complete.)

    Further explanation of "settling", including a change in when the
    transaction is considered final, is reviewed in these documents from
    the Federal Reserve Bank:

    A Letter on SDF
    http://www.frbservices.org/Retail/pd...lityLetter.pdf

    Settlement Day Finality
    http://www.frbservices.org/Retail/pd...pressjun25.pdf

    Obviously, the specific details of how transactions are recorded and
    finalized are not going to be available to the general public, in
    order to secure the integrity of the system, prevent hacking, and
    safeguard the account information that passes through the system every
    day.

    Though it sounds complex, it's actually a simple and relatively quick
    process, requiring anywhere from a few hours to complete the entire
    transaction to just two or three days in the event of a large amount
    of traffic (backlog) through the regional clearing house. It's also
    important to note that the transactions do not happen in real time -
    participating institutions receive "output files" (basically updates
    and transaction notations) just four times a day:

    Four FedACH SM Distributions Per Day Beginning September 19, 2003
    http://www.frbservices.org/Retail/pd...tionLetter.pdf

    Reminder
    http://www.frbservices.org/Retail/pd...ryReminder.pdf


    So who uses the ACH network? Well, you do if you have direct deposit,
    use online bill pay, have automatic billing with your utility
    provider, or avail yourself of services like BillPoint or PayPal. In
    fact, according to Business Cashflow Solutions, 43% of Americans use
    ACH payments for at least one recurring payment!

    The variety of institutions and individuals who use the ACH Network
    might surprise you:


    -- Mortgage Lenders
    -- Insurance Companies (Home, Life, Auto)
    -- Auto Lenders
    -- Mutual Funds and Investment Companies
    -- Newspapers/Magazines (for subscriptions)
    -- Utilities
    -- Long Distance Providers
    -- Cellular Service Providers
    -- Internet Service Providers
    -- Cable/Satellite TV Providers
    -- Health Clubs
    -- Credit Card Companies
    -- Non-Profits and Fundraisers
    -- Zoos and Museums (membership fees)
    -- Online Payment Services (BillPoint, PayPal)
    -- Employers (for Direct Deposit)
    -- The IRS (for Direct Deposit of refunds or automatic payment of
    taxes owed)
    -- State Departments of Taxation
    -- State Bureaus of Motor Vehicles
    -- State Attornies General (for payment of liens owed the state)
    -- State Highway Patrols (speeding on the Turnpike is hazardous to
    your bank account!)
    -- County Courts (for payments of fines, liens, fees)
    -- Child Support Enforcement Agencies
    -- The US Social Security Administration
    -- Consumer Collection Agencies (so you may pay your obligation
    quickly)

    It might surprise you to know that many websites which require
    membership for viewing also use the ACH system, as do "check by phone"
    companies, and some landlords will accept rent payments via ACH.

    ACH is perhaps best known for Direct Deposit. According to the
    Mid-America Payment Exchange, ACH is used for Direct Deposit by 70% of
    all Social Security benefit recipients, 46% of the U.S. workforce, and
    96% of all Federal Government employees. Direct Deposit saves time
    and money for both employers and employees, making it one of the
    fastest increasing services of the ACH Network. Some financial
    institutions will also waive your account fees if you use Direct
    Deposit!

    I used quite a few sources while preparing your answer, many of which
    will provide further details about the workings of the ACH Network,
    such as the addresses of regional associations, Federal Reserve
    branches, and regulations associated with electronic transactions.


    Sources:

    Misconceptions about Automated ACH/EFT Payments
    http://www.bizcashflow.com/consumerc...onceptions.htm

    FAQs- ACH/EFT Payment
    http://www.bizcashflow.com/consumercenter/apfaqs.htm

    Office Banker FAQs
    http://www.gsb.com/business/OB/obFaq.html

    What is ACH? The Automated Clearing House (ACH) Network
    http://www.openecho.com/ach.html

    ACH/EFT
    http://www.absinow.com/faq.htm

    A Consumer's Guide to Direct Deposit
    http://www.bos.frb.org/finsvcs/html/...df/ddguide.pdf

    A Consumer's Guide to Direct Payment
    http://www.bos.frb.org/finsvcs/html/...df/dpguide.pdf

    International ACH Service Manual
    http://www.frbservices.org/Retail/pd...viceManual.pdf

    A Consumer's Guide to Electronic Bill Payment
    http://www.bos.frb.org/finsvcs/html/.../pdf/ebill.pdf

    Commercebank Online Business
    http://www.ozcommonline.com/projects...h_geninfo.html

    National EFT
    http://www.nationaleft.com/faqarct.html

    Payment Systems Resources
    http://www.ny.frb.org/bankinfo/payme...aster2.htm#ach

    Regional ACH Associations
    http://www.paymentsystems.org/conten...ociations.htm#

    ach history
    http://web.archive.org/web/200201072...rg/achhist.htm

    Automated Clearing House (ACH) and Other ACH Services
    http://www.merchantseek.com/ach.htm

    ACH - a whatis definition
    http://whatis.techtarget.com/definit...214632,00.html

    Automated Clearing House - Fed Points - General Publications -
    Publications - Federal Reserve Bank of New York
    http://www.ny.frb.org/pihome/fedpoint/fed31.html

    NACHA Rules
    http://www.nacha.org/ACH_Rules/ach_rules.htm

    Direct Deposit and Direct Payment Information, Second Edition
    http://www.nacha.org/OtherResources/...nd_Edition.pdf

    Direct Deposit.org
    http://www.directdeposit.org/

    Electronic Funds Transfer Act
    Act No. 322 of the Public Acts of 1978
    http://web.archive.org/web/199902091...ct/eftfull.htm

    MPX - Direct Deposit
    http://www.mpx.org/Information/02conddp.htm

    MPX - Direct Payment
    http://www.mpx.org/Information/02conabp.htm


    Best regards!

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